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Currency tokens[ edit ] Currency tokens issued by a company sometimes ceased to be merely "trade" tokens when they were sanctioned by a local government authority: perhaps due to a severe shortage of monedă simbolică or the government's inability to issue its own coinage.
In effect, monedă simbolică organization behind the tokens became the regional bank. A set of Strachan and Co tokens A classic example of this is the Strachan and Co trade tokens of East Griqualand in South Africa, which were used as currency by the indigenous people in the region from Their initial success resulted from the scarcity of monedă simbolică change in that remote region at that time.
Similarly, in times of high inflation, tokens have sometimes taken on a currency role.
Examples of this are Italian and Israeli telephone tokens, which were always good for the same service i. New York City Subway tokens were also sometimes accepted in trade, or even in monedă simbolică meters, since they had a set value.
Trade tokens or barter tokens[ edit ] A brothel token from the Red Dog Saloon.
Coin-like objects from the Roman Empire called spintriae have been interpreted as an early form of token. Their functions are not documented, but they appear to have been brothel tokens or possibly gaming tokens. These tokens circulated in nearby villages, where they were called "Abbot's money".
- Token coin - Wikipedia
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Also, counters called jetons were used as small change without official blessing. These tokens were in monedă simbolică a pledge redeemable in goods, but not necessarily for currency. These tokens never received official sanction from government but were accepted and circulated quite widely.
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In England, the production of copper farthings was permitted by royal licence in the first few decades of the 17th century, but production ceased during the English Civil War and a great shortage of small change resulted.
This shortage was felt more keenly because of the rapid growth of trade in the towns and cities, and this in turn prompted both local authorities and merchants monedă simbolică issue tokens. These tokens were most commonly made of copper or brassbut pewterlead and occasionally leather tokens are also found.
Most were not monedă simbolică a specific denomination and were intended to substitute for farthingsbut there are also a large number of halfpenny and sometimes penny tokens. Halfpenny and penny tokens usually, but not always, bear the denomination on their face.
Brass trade token from Fort LaramieDakota Territory Most such tokens show the issuer's full name or initials. Where initials were shown, it was common practice to show three initials: the first names of husband and wife and their surname. Tokens would also normally indicate the merchant establishment, either by name or by picture.
Most were round, but they are also found in square, heart or octagonal shapes.
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Thousands of towns and merchants issued these tokens from untilwhen official production of farthings resumed, and private production was suppressed. There were again coin shortages in the monedă simbolică 18th century, opțiunea binar de intrare the British Royal Mint almost ceased production. Merchants once again produced tokens, but they were now machine made and typically larger than their 17th century predecessors, with values of a halfpenny or more.
While many were used in trade, they were also produced for advertising and political purposes, and some series were produced for the primary purpose of sale to collectors. These tokens are usually known as Conder tokensafter the monedă simbolică of the first reference book on them.
The transaction is therefore one of barter, with the tokens playing a role of convenience, allowing the seller to receive his goods at a rate and time convenient to himself, and the merchant to tie the holder of the token coin to his shop. Trade tokens often gradually changed into barter tokens, as evidenced by the continued circulation of former trade tokens when the need for their use had passed.
Aluminum trade token from Osage City, Kansas. In the United States of America, Hard times tokens issued from to and Civil War tokens issued in the s made up for shortages of official money. Treasury Department does not ship coins to the Armed Forces serving overseas, so Army and Air Force Exchange Service officials chose to make pogs in denominations of 5, 10, and 25 cents.
The pogs are about 38 mm 1. The collecting of trade tokens is part of the field of exonumiaand includes other types of tokens, including transit tokens, encased cents, and many others.
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In a narrow sense, trade tokens are "good for" tokens, issued by merchants. Generally, they have a merchant's name or initials, sometimes a town and state, and a value legend such as "good for 5¢" or other denomination somewhere on the token. Merchants that issued tokens included general stores, grocers, department stores, dairies, meat markets, drug stores, saloons, bars, taverns, barbers, coal mines, lumber mills and many other businesses.
Articole principale: Atelier monetar roman și Monedă romană.
The era of through marked the highest use of "trade tokens" in the United States, spurred by the proliferation of small stores in rural areas. There were thousands of small general and merchandise stores all over the United States, and many of them used trade tokens to promote trade and extend credit to customers.
Este greu de găsit personaje mari în lumea filmului care merită, pe bună dreptate, să fie imortalizate pe o monedă comemorativă. Designerii de la monetăria britanică The Royal Mint și-au asumat sarcina de a crea un design perfect al monedei. Rolul agentului fictiv al serviciului secret britanic M16, a fost creat de scriitorul Ian Flemnig, în timpul vacanței sale din februariepe care a petrecut-o în Jamaica, conacul GoldenEye mai târziu — numele unui film Bond.
Aluminum tokens almost always date afterwhen low-cost production began. Slot machine tokens[ edit ] Token coins in an arcade game. Metal token coins are used in lieu of cash in some coin-operated arcade games and casino slot machines. Money is exchanged for the token coins or chips in a casino at the casino cageat the gaming tables, or at a slot machine and at a cashier station for slot token coins.
The tokens are interchangeable with money at the casino. They generally have no value outside of the casino. After the increase in the value of silver stopped the circulation of silver coins aroundcasinos rushed to find a substitute, as most slot machines at that time used that particular coin.
Opțiune binară 24, and casinos were soon allowed to start using their own tokens to operate their slot machines. The Franklin Mint was the main minter of casino tokens at that time.
In monedă simbolică, many casinos adopted the Eisenhower Dollar for use in machines and on tables.
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When the dollar was replaced with the Susan B. Anthony dollar inmost casinos reinstituted tokens, fearing confusion with quarters and not wishing to extensively retool their slot machines. Those casinos which still use tokens in slot machines still use Eisenhower-sized ones. In many jurisdictions, casinos are not permitted to use currency in slot machines, necessitating tokens for smaller denominations.
Tokens are being phased out by many casinos in favor of coinless machines which accept banknotes and print receipts for payout. These receipts - often nicknamed "TITOs" for Ticket-in, ticket-outcan also be inserted into the machines.
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In video arcades, they are also being phased out cum se calculează raportul de independență financiară favor of magnetic cards, which monedă simbolică also count how many tickets one has, allowing arcades to also do away with paper tickets.
Main article: Scrip A de Beers 3 d staff salary token given to employees and only usable at their stores. Staff tokens were issued to staff of businesses in lieu of coins. In the 19th century the argument supporting payment to staff was the shortage of coin in circulation, but in reality employees were forced to spend their wages in the company's stores at highly inflated prices—resulting in an effective dramatic lowering of their actual salary and disposable income. With the arrival of the inter-regional Presto smart card, the TTC planned to phase them out by the end of Philadelphia Transportation Company transit tokens Railways and public transport agencies used fare tokens for years, to sell rides in advance at a discount, or to allow patrons to use turnstiles geared only to take tokens as opposed to coins, currencyor fare cards.