Great Famine (Ireland) - Wikipedia

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Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Irelandwho were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdomand Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords.

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Rent collection was left in the hands of the landlords' agents, or middlemen. This assured the landlord of a regular income, and relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen.

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At the top of the "social pyramid" was the " ascendancy class ", the English and Anglo-Irish families who owned most of the land and held more or less unchecked power over their tenants. Some of their estates were vast; for example, the Earl of Lucan owned more than 60, acres  km2. Many of these absentee landlords lived in England. The rent revenue—collected from "impoverished tenants" who were paid minimal wages to raise crops and livestock for export [17] —was mostly sent to England.

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They established a Royal Commissionchaired by the Earl of Devonto enquire into the laws regarding the occupation of land. Daniel O'Connell described this commission as "perfectly one-sided", being composed of landlords, with no tenant representation.

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There was no hereditary loyalty, feudal tie, or mitigating tradition of paternalism as existed in Britain, as the Anglo-Irish aristocracy that supplanted the Gaelic aristocracy in the 17th century was of a different religion and newer. The Earl of Clare observed of landlords that "confiscation is their common title".

With the peasantry "brooding over their discontent in sullen indignation" in the words of the Earl of Clarethe landlords largely viewed the countryside as a hostile place in which to live. Some landlords visited their property only once or twice in a lifetime, if ever.

They would split a holding into smaller and smaller parcels so as to increase the amount of rent they could obtain.

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Tenants could be evicted for reasons such as non-payment of rents which were highor a landlord's decision to raise sheep instead of grain crops. A cottier paid his rent by working for the landlord. Most tenants had no security of tenure on the land; as tenants "at will", they could be turned out whenever the landlord chose. The only exception to this arrangement was in Ulster where, under a practice known as "tenant right"a tenant was compensated for any improvement they made to their holding.

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Sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial to Woodham-Smith, the commission stated that "the superior prosperity and tranquility of Ulster, compared with the rest of Ireland, were due to tenant right". Woodham-Smith writes that, in these circumstances, "industry and enterprise were extinguished and a peasantry created which was one of the most destitute in Europe". Holdings were so small that no crop sligo trading co limited site- ul oficial than potatoes would suffice to feed a family.

Shortly before the famine, the British government reported that poverty was so widespread that one-third of all Irish small holdings could not support the tenant families after rent was paid; the families survived only by earnings as seasonal migrant labour in England and Scotland.

Two-thirds of people depended on agriculture for their survival, but rarely received a working wage. They had to work for their landlords in return for the patch of land they needed to grow enough food for their own families.

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This was the system which forced Ireland's peasantry into monoculturesince only the potato could be grown in sufficient quantity to meet nutritional needs. The potato was not popular at first; however, after an unusual promotion campaign that was supported by landowners and members of royalty, who wanted their tenants to plant and eat the crop, it rose in popularity.

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By tothe potato had become a staple food of the forex bank leppavara, especially in winter. For the labourer, "a potato wage" shaped the expanding agrarian economy.

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Ireland had been used to pasture cows for centuries. The British colonised The British taste for beef had a devastating impact on the impoverished and disenfranchised people of Eventually, cows took over much of Ireland, leaving the native population virtually dependent on the potato for survival.

General crop failures, through disease or frost, were recorded in, and In andthe potato crop failed in Munster and Connaught. In andMayoDonegaland Galway suffered likewise.

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In,anddry rot and curl caused serious losses, and in the potato failed in Ulster. Widespread failures throughout Ireland occurred in, and According to Woodham-Smith, "the unreliability of the potato was an accepted fact in Ireland". InIrish newspapers carried reports concerning a disease which for two years had attacked the potato crops in America.

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Ships from BaltimorePhiladelphiaor New York City could have carried diseased potatoes from these areas to European ports. Paddock [57] posited that the blight was transported via potatoes being carried to feed passengers on clipper ships sailing from America to Ireland.

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By mid-Augustit had reached much of northern and central Europe; Belgium, The Netherlands, northern France, and southern England had all already been affected. A week later, on 23 August, it reported that "A fearful malady has broken out among the potato crop In Belgium the fields are said to be completely desolated.

There is hardly a sound sample in Covent Garden market As for cure for this distemper, there is none. Only when the crop was lifted harvested in October, did the scale of destruction become apparent. Few had been sown, so, despite average yields, hunger continued. Since over three million Irish people were totally dependent on potatoes for food, hunger and famine were inevitable.

The Town Council of Belfast met and made similar suggestions, but neither body asked for charity, according to John Mitchelone of the leading Repealers.

One of the first things he suggested was the introduction of " Tenant-Right " as practised in Ulster, giving the landlord a fair rent for his land, but giving the tenant compensation for any money he might have laid out on the land in permanent improvements. He suggested that, if Ireland had a domestic Parliament, the ports would be thrown open and the abundant crops raised in Ireland would be kept for the people of Ireland, as the Dublin parliament had done during the food shortages of the s.

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O'Connell maintained that only an Irish parliament would provide both food and employment for the people. He said that repeal of the Act of Union was a necessity and Ireland's only hope. It established the widespread view that British actions during the famine and their treatment of the Irish was a deliberate effort to murder the Irish.